US Exports Oil


United States has joined the elite club of major oil exporting nations with nearly $22 billion worth of oil exports.  The US Congress lifted a 40-year-old ban on the export of crude oil following the 1973 OPEC oil embargo. The ban restricted crude oil exports from the US to all countries besides Canada.  The last time the US exported more oil than it imported was 1953, and a ban on oil exports was lifted only in 2015.

The International Energy Agency estimates that American oil production between 2015 and 2025 would grow at a rate unparalleled by any country in history, with far-reaching consequences for the US and the world.

Technological advancements in drilling and fracking (hydraulic fracturing)helped US to extract huge reserves of gas and oil trapped in shale rocks.  Main contributor to shale oil production is  the Bakken Shale Formation in North Dakota and the Eagle Ford Shale in Texas. The oil that is being produced from these shale formations is sometimes incorrectly referred to as ‘shale oil.’

The oil in the Bakken and Eagle Ford formations actually exists as oil, but the shale does not allow the oil to flow very well. This oil is properly called “tight oil”, and advances in hydraulic fracking technology have allowed some of this oil to be economically produced.


‘Tight oil’ refers to hydrocarbons that are trapped in formations that are not very porous, thus the oil and gas cannot flow out into the pipe as easily as with traditional wells. This oil is extracted by drilling horizontally across the deposit, and then fracking to open up the rock and allow the oil to flow.

The price of oil is political and is set by the big players, particularly by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), led by Saudi Arabia.  New fracking technology has resulted in flooding the oil market.   Oil prices had been above $100 per barrel up to 2014 and is now about $50 per barrel, all because of US shale oil.  The shale revolution has transformed oil wildcatters into billionaires and the U.S. into the world’s largest petroleum producer, surpassing Russia and Saudi Arabia.

As the oil market got flooded, , Saudi Arabia initiated an economic oil war against the US by refusing to cut production in November of 2014, an attempt to drive US shale oil producers bankrupt.  The increased OPEC oil production drove oil prices down even more, eventually dropping to about $30/bbl in 2016, a price at which shale producers can’t even break-even.

The oil wells used to flare out natural gas and was burned off as an unwanted by-product.  Now the gas is cooled to minus 162 degrees Celsius, to be condensed into a liquid – Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) -to be used as a clean alternative to coal.  US is now a top producer of LNG, selling shiploads of the commodity to countries such as China.

Even though LNG is not a very ‘clean fuel’, US under President Trump has been exporting LNG from 2017.  US is expected to overtake Qatar and become the world’s biggest LNG exporter by the mid-2020s.

US may claim today that it is energy independent, but will still be exposed to global energy prices, and still be affected by the geopolitics of the Middle East.  Though US sells more petroleum than it buys, American refiners continue to import  more than 7 million barrels a day of crude from all over the globe to feed its refineries, which consume more than 17 million barrels each day.  Thus the US has become the world’s top fuel supplier.

Why this sudden multi-fold increase in oil production?  Is it the re-emergence of US under President Trump?  Is it an attempt to control the world through the oil market?   These questions will find answers in days to come.

It could also be that US is exploiting all its oil reserves to be sold in the world oil market as some new engine  technology is in the offing with minimum dependence on fossil fuels.  You may soon find such a technology emerging in the market and what it would be is anyone’s guess.

Let us wait and watch.

The Last Evening in Heraklion


As the night set in, we walked from our hotel to the 25th August Street.  It is now a paved pedestrian street, and boasts the most beautiful Neoclassical buildings that house banks, travel agencies and tourist shops.   This street may have been first cut by the Arabs in the 9th or 10th century, the main thoroughfare of Heraklion, linking the town centre to the harbour. During the Venetian period it was called the Ruga Maistra (Main Street), while in Ottoman times it was known as Vezir Tsarsi (Vizir’s Market) after the Vezir Mosque. The modern name of the street relates to a tragic event. On the 25th of August 1898, during the feast of St Titus, fanatic Muslim mob slaughtered many Christians, including 17 British soldiers and the British Consul.


Walking down the street, we came to the Lions Square.  It holds the ornate Venetian fountain of four lions with water gushing from their mouths. The fountain is officially in ‘Eleftheriou Venizelou’ Square in the centre of Heraklion, but the inhabitants of the city never use the official name, usually referring to it as the Lions Square or the Lions for short. The Venetians built it in 1629 as a solution to the problem of supplying Heraklion with water, providing 1,000 barrels of water a day.


Opposite the Lions Square is one of the first and most important works of the Venetian settlers, the St Mark Church.    Next to the church on the South-West corner was a high bell tower with a clock. During the long Turkish siege of the city, the bell was used as a bomb alarm, resulting in the bell tower becoming the target of the Turkish cannons. When the Turks took over the city, the church was converted into a mosque.  The bell tower was demolished and in its place they built a minaret.  Restoration of the building commenced in 1956 and today it houses the Municipal Art Gallery.


Down the street is the Loggia (noblemen’s club), constructed in 1626-28 AD by Francesco Morosini, the same man who built the Lions Fountain. This is the fourth and final Loggia built during the period of Venetian rule. Very little information is available on the first three.  Venetian political and social customs demanded the construction of a public building in Heraklion, as a meeting-place for the nobles, rulers and feudal lords, where economic and commercial decisions were made. It was also a place for them to relax.   The building is a faithful reproduction of Palladio’s famous Basilica in Vincenza, demonstrating the significance the Venetians attached to the city of Heraklion.  . Today the Loggia has been restored to its former glory and houses the Town Hall.


In 961 AD, the Arabs were driven out from Crete, bringing the island back under Byzantine Empire. This is when the first Orthodox church of St Titus (Agios Titos in Greek) must have been built, to rekindle the Christian faith and tradition in Crete, which had declined due to the Arab conquest of the island.  Saint Titus was a disciple of the Apostle Paul and the first Bishop of Crete.  At the fall of Heraklion to the Turks, all relics were removed to Venice, where they still remain today. The single exception is the skull of St Titus, which was returned to Heraklion in 1966 and is now kept in a silver reliquary in the church.  During the Turkish rule, the church was converted into a mosque known as the Vezir Mosque.  The great earthquake of 1856 totally destroyed the church. It was rebuilt in its present form as an Ottoman mosque.  The minaret of the church was demolished in the 1920s, when the last Muslims left Heraklion   The church was further modified in 1925.


Heraklion, a city well known for its intense and vibrant nightlife, offers many a chance for a night out.  The night entertainment consists of modern and traditional spots to choose from. There is an interesting variety of bars and clubs and they stay open till 3 o’clock in the morning. These bars play lounge or loud music and on some live bands perform.   Many taverns host bands which play live traditional music, with dancing.  One can enjoy a dinner at the many taverns which offer delicious local Cretan delicacies, local wine and salads.


We observed that almost all restaurants had many tables outside, especially after the sunset.  Taverns and bars serve traditional local drinks like ‘tsikoudia’ and ‘ouzo’ and special snacks.


The beautiful narrow streets with its narrower lanes and by-lanes, are brimming with tourists and locals all through the night.  It may well be the most ‘fashion oriented’ city in the Greek islands.


Crete has one of the oldest and perhaps the most delicious gastronomic traditions in the world with Cretan olive oil as one of the basic ingredients of Cretan cuisine.  Archaeological excavations indicate that the ancient Cretans used to consume almost the same products as the contemporary islanders. Large jars for storing olive oil, cereals, pulses and honey we saw at Knossos palace possibly stand testimony to this tradition.   This storage habit would have helped them to survive many sieges the island experienced, mainly by the Arabs, the Venetians and the Ottomans.


We dined at a restaurant next to the Lions Square. The Menu was Greek Mussaka –  Oven baked Greek dish with layers of eggplant, zucchini, potato and minced meat; Shrimps Saganaki – shrimps with white Feta cheese cooked in spicy tomato sauce; slowly cooked goat with citrus fruits served with sautéed Cretan greens, carrot jello, Greek yogurt and tahini (a paste made from ground sesame seeds.)

On 17 June 2016, we took the Air Canada flight from Athens to return home. At the end of the journey I would like quote Douglas Noel Adams, an English author, humourist and satirist who said ” I may not have gone where I intended to go, but I think I have ended up where I intended to be.”

Swamiye Sharanam Ayyappa (Lord Ayyappa is the Only Hope)


Swamiye Sharanam Ayyappa
  – this is the chant every Lord Ayyappa devotee utters, especially on pilgrimage to Sabarimala, on the Western Ghats of Kerala, India, the abode of the  Lord Ayyappa.  He is revered by most Hindus of South India.  He is believed to be the son of Shiva (God of destruction) and Mohini – the female avatar of Vishnu (preserver and protector of the universe).  Any devotee undertaking pilgrimage to Sabarimala is expected wear a Rudraksha chain,  observe 40 days of fasting, penance and continence, walk barefoot, wear black dress, etc.

Another name of Lord Ayyappa is Sastha which means Buddha. Buddhism is believed to have entered in Kerala by 3rd Century BC.  The constant and repeated chants, especially the word Sharanam  is that of the Buddhists.  The chain the pilgrims wear comes from the Rudraksha chain of the Shaivites. The strict fasting, penance and continence is taken out of the beliefs of the Vaishnavites. Ahimsa is taken from the Jains.


Myth has it that the King of Pandalam, childless, got a baby from the forest and took him to his palace and called him Manikantan. Later, the Queen delivered a baby and the she wanted the adopted son to be thrown out. Conniving with the Minister, the Queen pretended to be ill with the royal doctor prescribing Tigress’ milk as cure.  Manikantan was tasked to procure Tigress’ milk from the forest.  Knowing the intent of Manikantan’s visit, the King of the Gods, Indra, transfigured into a Tigress.  Manikantan climbed on top of the tigress and led the way back to the Palace.  Manikantan pardoned everyone who plotted against him and nominated his younger brother to the throne.


He then took the King to the forest ,  blazed an arrow toward a hill and asked the King to construct a shrine for him where the arrow landed. He also requested his father to come annually to visit him at the shrine.

It is believed that the Pandalam Royal Family are descendants of the Pandya dynasty of Madurai, Tamil Nadu. The Pandya King fled to Kerala after losing the battle against Malik Khafer, General of Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji and settled in Pandalam in 1202 AD.


There is an Islamic angle also to the belief in Lord Ayyappa.  Vavar, a Muslim forest brigand was shown the path of righteousness by Lord Ayyappa and he became the trusted lieutenant of the Lord.  When Lord Ayyappa took to his abode at the hilltop of Sabarimala, Vavar took up his position at the foothills in a Mosque at Erumeli.  Ayyappa devotees on pilgrimage first pay their respects to Vavar at the mosque before undertaking the trek uphill to the Temple.

What is the significance of Lord Ayyappa to me, a Syrian Orthodox Christian and an Indian Army Veteran?


In December 1982, I was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant to 75 Medium Regiment of Artillery.  A regiment in Artillery is divided into three gun Batteries.  A Battery operates six guns, manned by about 150 soldiers.  The Regiment then had an interesting class composition. One battery was of Brahmins (other than those from the Southern and Eastern States of India), the second had Jats and the third was manned by the soldiers from the four Southern States.  In those days, any Young Officer posted to the Regiment would serve with each of the batteries for one or two years in order to make them familiarise with the soldiers. I too went through this rotation beginning with the Brahmins, then with the South Indians and then with the Jats.  On promotion to the Rank of Major, I took over command of the Brahmin Battery with Major Joginder Singh, a Sikh, commanding the South Indian Battery.


The War Cry of the South Indian Battery was ‘Swamiye Sharanam Ayyappa.’  It is believed to have been introduced by Captain AN Suryanarayanan, who was the Adjutant of the Regiment in the early days of the Regiment.  He later rose to command the Regiment and is now a Veteran Brigadier.

‘Sawmiye Sharanam Ayyappa’ reverberated on the battlefield when the Regiment saw action during 1971 Indo-Pak war during the Battle of Basantar River.  Our Regiment was honoured with the Honour Title ‘Basantar River’ based on the Regiment’s performance in war.

Lord Ayyappa is a warrior deity and is revered for his ascetic devotion to Dharma – the ethical and right way of living, to deploy his military genius and daring yogic war abilities to destroy those who are powerful but unethical, abusive and arbitrary.  Hence ‘Swamiye Sharanam Ayyappa’ is an apt Regimental Battle Cry.  We said it loudly before we undertook any mission, before commencement of engaging the enemy with our guns, while on training, while on the playing fields, at any competitions, and so on; why it reverberated whenever we got together, while in service or post retirement.


Our Regiment might be the only Indian Army entity to have the War Cry ‘Swamiye Sharanam Ayyappa.’  Hindus, Sikhs, Christians. Muslims, Jains, Parsis – irrespective of our religious faiths, we all cried out loud  ‘Swamiye Sharanam Ayyappa.’

Island of Crete and City of Heraklion


The island of Crete in the past two thousand years has changed hands many times over.  The Romans arrived in Crete as mediators  in 67 BC and settled here as conquerors. After three years of fighting, Crete became a Roman province and enjoyed a period of prosperity.  During this period it is believed that Bishop Titus converted the population to Christianity by order of the Apostle Paul.  In 285 AD, with the division of Roman Empire into Roman and Byzantine Empires, Crete came under the Byzantine Empire.

From 824 to 961 AD Crete was occupied by the Arabs. After a struggle lasting for many years, Byzantines  succeeded in freeing Crete from the Arabs and the second Byzantine Period lasted from 961AD to 1204 AD.  During this period, Byzantium nobles, European merchants and Christians from eastern countries settled in Crete and attempts were made to destroy all traces of the Arabs.  Crete was then sold to the Venetians who occupied it for the next 450 years.

Turkish attempt to conquer the island started with a pirate raid against the coastal towns in 1645.   Turks captured Crete in 1669.  The entire Cretan population deserted the city  and settled on the neighbouring islands and in Venice.

Crete was ceded to the Egyptians in 1821 from whom the Turks took over again in 1840.  Crete was not part of Greece when Greece state was formed in 1832 as it was under Egyptian control. Crete became independent in 1898 after the ‘Great Cretan Revolt’.  Crete was  united with Greece in 1913.

With the outbreak of World War II, Germans occupied Crete in 1941 The Battle of Crete was the first airborne invasion using paratroopers in military history.  Commonwealth forces, mainly British and New Zealanders, supported by the local resistance, fought hard for a week before being forced to evacuate the island.  Germans used it as a naval base to control the sea lanes in the Mediterranean Sea.  It also served as a supply base in maintaining supplies to Rommel’s Afrikan Korps  fighting in North Africa, until vacated by the Germans in July 1945.


On June 16, we decided to familiarise with the city of Heraklion and the best method was to get on the ‘Hop on-Hop off’ open double-decker bus.  Onboard audio commentary available in English, Greek, German, Italian, French, Spanish, Russian, and Turkish, gave out information about various sites enroute.


We boarded the bus at this seaside Venetian fortress situated at the entrance of the old harbour, built by the Venetians to protect the port  between 1523 to 1540.  This two-floored fortress was built with big blocks of stone.  The ground floor used to house captains of ships and also to store food and ammunition.  The upper floor had canon emplacements.  The upper parts of the castle are Turkish additions.


Driving along the coast road, we came to the ruins of the Dominican Church of Peter and Paul. It was built in the 13th century, during the Venetian period.


This ruins are of the second church, built on the site of the original building after it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1508.  During the period of Turkish rule, this church  was converted into a mosque.  It is currently being restored by the Archaeological Service.


Opposite the church is the Natural History Museum, functioning under the University of Crete. It is aimed  to study, protect and promote diverse flora and fauna of the Eastern Mediterranean region.  The museum is based in a restored industrial building that housed an electric power plant.


The bus drove along the Venetian Walls  fortifying the city of Heraklion.  It is a series of defensive walls which surround the city with a perimeter of roughly 5 km, supplemented with a ditch without water and bastions.  The first city walls were built in the Middle Ages, but they were completely rebuilt by the Venetians.  The fortifications managed to withstand the longest siege in history for 21 years, before the city fell to the Ottomans in 1669.  The walls remain largely intact to this day, and they are considered to be among the best preserved Venetian fortifications in Europe.

The gate of St. George at the East of the city was demolished in 1917. The gate Jesus is at the South, the gate of Pantocrator (known and as gate of Chanias) was at the West.


St George gate on the wall connected the then Venetian town of Chandaka to Eastern Crete.   This gate was built in 1565. Its name comes from a relief decorative representation of St George, which is today exhibited in the historical museum of the city.


Gate of Jesus or New Gate (Kenourgia Porta) was built on the South side of the Venetian Walls in 1587.   The gate also hosted the pipeline which supplied water to the city.   An arched passage across the wall was constructed in the 1970s for cars.  On either side of the central doorway there are some openings corresponding to stairs, windows and secondary entrances to adjacent locations, and to rooms above and inside.  The rooms were used for storing weapons and for accommodating the guards of the gate.


We ‘hopped off’ the bus to visit the Tomb of Nikos Kazantzakis, the famous Greek writer born in Heraklion in 1883.  Throughout his life he received many critics, particularly from the Church, as he was trying to explain the notion of God and humans.  When his book, ‘The Last Temptation of Christ’ presenting Jesus Christ as a tragic figure who had been fighting all his life between the duty and mission on one side and the human desire to live a normal life on the other side, was published in 1951, the Roman Catholic Church banned it.  He left for the United States  in 1911.  As the Church had excommunicated him, he was not allowed to be buried in a cemetery when he died in 1957.  He was buried  outside the walls of his hometown as per his will.  His tomb is plain stonework and surprisingly it has a wooden cross on it.  Epitaph on his tombstone in Greek, when translated reads ‘I hope for nothing. I fear nothing. I am free.’

We hopped on to the next bus and got off to visit the Palace of Knossos built around 1900 BC.

Women Empowerment and the Dog

A Facebook post compared a woman to a flea on his dog.  The woman had declared that she will enter a temple in India in the backdrop of the recent judgement by the Supreme Court granting equal rights to women to enter that temple.  It is believed that the deity at the temple is a Brahmachari (conduct consistent with Lord Brahma), (also meaning a man with the virtue of celibacy when unmarried and fidelity when married) and no woman must enter the temple.  When the case of woman entry to the said temple came up for hearing in the Supreme Court, the judges had to rule in favour of allowing equal rights to both man and woman as the Constitution of India grants it..

During my morning walk with our dog Maximus on a bitterly cold Canadian winter morning, our neighbour, Mr Steve, a septuagenarian  asked “If you can  walk slowly, I can accompany you both.”  We commenced our walk slowly along the walkway cleared of snow that had fallen that morning.

After about five minutes of walking, we came to an intersection with traffic lights.  The ‘Green Man’ signal for pedestrian crossing had just turned to flashing ‘Red Hand’.  Mr Steve said “Walk fast, we can get on to the other side before the traffic starts moving across.”

“The signal has turned red, do we need to cross now?” I enquired.  “Do not worry, get going” said Mr Steve.  On crossing the road, Mr Steve reminisced about his youth and said “In 1939, the Second World War commenced and I was only eleven years old then, studying in Grade 6.  Our family then lived a hundred miles North of Toronto.  We had a dairy farm with over two hundred cows.  On the outbreak of the war, like all able men of Canada, my father and two elder brothers joined the Canadian Army and moved to Europe to fight the war.  Running of our dairy farm was taken over by mother and my two elder sisters.

In those days most activities in Canada were taken over by women – from driving trucks and buses, running the banking and postal services, grocery shops and petrol pumps – anything and everything – as most men had joined the Armed Forces and had sailed off to Europe.

After the war, in 1945, my father and brothers returned home.  My mother did not allow them anywhere near the diary farm as it had become ‘hers’.  With the experience of digging trenches during the war and also in building roads and tracks towards the war efforts, my father and brothers started a road construction company in Toronto.  On my graduation in engineering from University of Toronto, I too joined my father’s company and retired as its CEO a few years back.

What all fields Canadian women took over during the war, they have not allowed the men folk to come near them  That is why Canada is where it is today, all because of women empowerment.”

“What does this story got to do with our jay-walking across the road?” I asked.

Mr Steve commenced his justification ” It seems you are not aware of priorities in Canada.  It begins with the children, then women, followed by dogs and then other pets, then is wildlife and then are the trees and plants, and last, but the least come the men.  If we two were only to cross the road I would have never in my wildest dreams thought of crossing the road.  Just because the dog was with us, I told you to get across.”

“Why so?” I asked.

“In case two old men like us get struck by a vehicle, the Canadian courts will only grant may be forty to fifty thousand dollars.  If the dog even gets brushed by a vehicle, the driver will have hell to pay as the court will surely decree at least a million dollars.  That fear in every Canadian driver will never allow them to move an inch  even if the traffic light turns green” Mr Steve explained.

In case real women empowerment has to come into the Indian society, some major catastrophe like what happened in Canada, USA or Europe during Second World War need to occur.  Supreme Court judgements, or forced entry of women to some temples is not going to give women equal rights they need to be given.  The Indian males need to accept this reality and change for the betterment of the society.

 

A Colourful Stroll Along Lake Ontario


Port Credit located ten kilometers from our home was an old trading port till the 1800s.  It is now a marina for boats.  Along the lake shore is a seven kilometer trail that turns into multitude of colours every fall.


Port Credit is located at the mouth of Credit River on Lake Ontario.  The ship Ridgetown was sunk here on June 21, 1974 to act as a breakwater.  After her decommissioning in 1970, she was loaded with stones, towed from Toronto Port to Port Credit and sunk at the entrance to the port  with her cabins and stack intact. She remains here, protecting the port from the forces of waves.  In the backdrop is the City of Toronto, about 20 kilometer away with its landmark CN Tower.


On a windy day, the waves rise up over a few meters.


Canadian Fall is well known for trees with splashes of red, orange and yellow that dot tree lines across the country.


Fall is the most photographed Canadian season of the year, with colours changing very fast until the leaves fall off.


Tender thin leaves are made up of cells filled with water sap and will freeze in winter. Any plant tissue incapable of surviving the winter must be sealed off and shed to ensure the tree’s survival.

IMG_6519
As sunlight decreases in fall, the veins that carry sap into and out of a leaf gradually close. A layer of cells called the separation layer forms at the base of the leaf stem. When this layer is complete, the leaf is separated from the tissue that connected it to the branch and it falls off.


Coniferous trees like pines, spruces, cedars and firs, don’t lose their leaves or needles in winter. The needles are covered with a heavy wax coating and the fluids inside the cells contain substances that resist freezing.

IMG_6412
These needles can live for several years before they fall off.


Ground along the trail is all covered with leaves of varying shades of yellow, orange and red.


Some of the leaves are yet to change their colours and some have done it already.


Old cycles and other artifacts are used to decorate the walkways.

There are many children’s parks along the trail.’


Picnic spots equipped with tables, benches and barbecue stands for the revelers dot the trail.

This is the Suncorp refinery located about ten kilometer away.


These Canadian geese have not migrated down South to USA.  It is neither that they have lost their passports nor have forgotten to migrate.  It is because they find enough food in various parks in the city and may have developed the art of surviving through Canadian winter.  May be they will fly South as soon as the temperature drops.

A Walk on a Wet Fall Evening


Every evening, I drive to the park near our home for an evening stroll.


The school buses would be returning to their depots after dropping children home.  The yellow coloured bus merges with the yellow coloured trees along the Road.


After parking my car, I get on to the trail.


The trail runs along Credit River which drains into Lake Ontario.


You are sure to meet some waterfowls, ducks etc enroute.


Fall offers a kaleidoscope of colours.


Woods are really, colourful and deep


And I have miles to go before I end my walk.


The green leaf colour comes from pigments of chlorophyll, used by the trees to make food with the help of sunlight. There are other pigments namely carotenoids and anthocyanins present in the leaves, but are overshadowed by the chlorophyll in spring and summer.


Carotenoids create bright yellows and oranges like in corn, carrots, and bananas.


In fall, trees break down the green pigments and nutrients stored in the leaves. The nutrients are shuttled into the roots for reuse in spring.


Some tree leaves turn mostly brown, indicating that all pigments are gone.


Trees respond to the decreasing amount of sunlight by producing less and less chlorophyll and eventually stops producing chlorophyll.


Now the carotenoid in the leaves show through and the leaves become a bright cascade of various shades of glowing yellows.
Anthocyanins impart red colour to fruits like cranberries, red apples, cherries, strawberries, etc.


The fall season being characterised by short days and longer and cooler nights. When a number of warm, sunny autumn days and cool but not freezing nights come one after the other, Maple leaves produce lots of sugar, but the cool night temperatures prevent the sugar sap from flowing through the leaf veins and down into the branches and trunk.

Anthocyanins are now produced by the leaves for protection. They allow the plant to move down the nutrients in the leaves to the roots, before they fall off. The nutrients stored in the roots help the trees to sprout out new leaves in coming spring. During this time, anthocyanins give leaves their bright, brilliant shades of red, purple and crimson.


Information boards and garbage cans are placed all along the trail.


You are never alone on the trail.


The 5 km trail ends with a flight of stairs to the parking lot.