York-Durham Heritage Railway

On October 1, 2016, we embarked on the York-Durham Heritage Railway train on a trip around the city of Uxbridge, about an hour’s drive from Toronto.  The York-Durham Heritage Railway trains operate on the original Toronto & Nipissing (T&N) rail line, built in the late 1860’s. This line was built to allow its owner, William Gooderham, a distiller from Toronto, to carry grain to his distillery as well as lumber.

On March 4th, 1868, the Company was chartered and construction began the following year. As it was advantageous at that time to have the rail line pass through any town, many paid handsomely for the privilege. Markham raised over $4,000 in one evening, and Unionville made a successful last minute effort to have the line rerouted after it bought $500 worth of shares. The town of Uxbridge was chosen for the site for the railway’s shops.

We  reached the Uxbridge station, with its distinctive “Witches Hat” roof, owned and maintained by the Township of Uxbridge for the heritage journey. Uxbridge is situated in a beautiful valley on the northern slope of the Oak Ridges Moraine, about 64km northeast of Toronto, Ontario.  The York-Durham Heritage Railway reopened the line between Uxbridge and Stouffville in 1996 and has been running on summer weekends since then. The train journey of about 90 minutes.

After we boarded the train, the Captain of the train – the Conductor – briefed the passengers about the train and its journey, what to see and do with the coach attendant awtching. All the staff running the train are volunteers.

The fall had set in (01 Oct) and the leaves were changing colours – before they fall off.  This gave a kaleidoscope of colours all through the journey.

The guard’s wagon  of the train called the Caboose at the rear end of the train, acted as an office and living quarters for the crew of a freight train in the old days. A viewing Cupola is built to facilitate a crew member to look forward at the train to see if anything is amiss

The Baggage Car with open doors fitted with safety barricades is the best place to view the landscape while the train is on the move.

One side of the Baggage Car is a ‘Railway Play Station’ for kids, to keep the kids engaged all through the journey.

On the other side of the Baggage Car is the Souvenir shop and a snack-bar – all manned by volunteers.

The rail-road crossings do not have barriers like those along an operational rail line as the trains operate only on weekends.  It is the duty of the drivers who cross the railway line to lookout for approaching trains and stop.

A musician, again a volunteer, entertained the passengers with his melodies. The passengers also joined him in chorus.

A volunteer ‘Clown’ was also seen entertaining kids with his tricks on board

This is a lime stone quarry enroute of LaFarge Cement Company.  Ontario has large deposit of limestone which supports the large cement manufacturing industry.

The journey was very pleasant, especially with the friendly, easy – going volunteer staff.  The staff obviously loved what they did.  It is an experience worth sharing as it goes to prove that a volunteer force can run a railway and much more.

 

Pelee Island : The Southernmost Tip of Canada

On July 08, 2017, we along with Stephens, our travel companions, travelled from Toronto to Lemington, a four hour car drive along Highway 401.  We boarded MV Jiimaan, a vessel 200 ft)in length that transports 400 passengers and 40 vehicles on Lake Erie from Lemington to Pelee Islands.  The cruise was of  about 90 minutes.  The ferry housed a cafeteria and the view from the deck was awesome.

Pelee Island, (42 Sq Km) largest island in the Western End of Lake Erie, is the Southernmost tip of Canada.  It was leased to Thomas McKee by Ojibwa and Onawa tribes in 1788.  The island’s name is derived from a French word ‘pelee’ meaning barren.  It remained barren, true to its name until it was purchased by William McKormick in 1823.

The Pelee Island Lighthouse was built by John Scott in 1833.  William McCormick donated the land and also served as its first light-keeper till 1840.  The lighthouse used to guide sailors through the rocky Pelee Passage. in the Erie Lake until it went out of service in 1909.

The only other way to get on to the Pelee Island is through the International Airport with a 3,300 feet paved runway.  Regular flights operate in winter when the ferry services are closed.  It serves as the emergency pickup point. It might be the smallest International Airport in Canada – it is International as it receives flights from USA, just South of it.

The population of Pelee Island is about 140.  In summer about 100 migrant workers land on the island to support both tourism and agriculture.  The island has a Police Station manned by two personnel, obviously there is hardly any crime and the last major crime was reported in 1920.  The Emergency Services is operated by two Para-Medics with an ambulance and a Nurse Practitioner manning the Medical Clinic.  Emergency cases has to be airlifted to the mainland at Lemington.  The Fire Department has a fire tender operated by volunteer crew.

This is the shoe tree which has an interesting history.  The tree was given up for dead and the home owner tied a pair of shoes on to it and it is believed to re-grow thereafter.  All the migrant workers, on leaving the island at the end of the season now tie their work-shoes on the tree to bring them good luck.

The island is mainly  agricultural based with about 5,000 acres of soybeans, about 1,000 acres of wheat, 500 acres of grape cultivation.  The centre of the island was a large marsh which was drained out to form the fertile agricultural land.  Thus most cultivation is done below the Lake’s level and hence there is always fear of floods.  The houses on the island are built on stilts to save them from flooding.

After spending the day on the island, we boarded the ferry on our return voyage to Lemington and then we drove off to Toronto.

 

 

പഴങ്കഞ്ഞി (Pazhankanji)

Pazhankanji – fermented previous day’s cooked rice soaked in plain water – was served every morning at our home while we were growing up.  It was mostly accompanied by a pickle or ഉപ്പുമാങ്ങ  (Uppumanga) chutney.  Uppumanga is pickled tender mangoes in  brine.  After harvesting the tender mangos, generally in March-April, they are washed clean, dried and put into a large china-clay pitcher called a ഭരണി  (Bharani) with  brine and lot of fresh green chillies.  The mangos are now left to pickle up and is used to make chutney, with or without coconut, during the monsoons (June till September).  At that time availability of vegetables from our farmland around the house would deplete as new saplings would have been planted with the commencement of monsoons.  Obviously they would be growing up to yield their produce.

Amma used to make chutney with the Uppumanga and the accompanying chillies by grinding it with the small red onions and grated coconut.  She also used it to prepare prawn curry with it. I relished the brine from the Bharani which had the flavour of both the mango and the chili.  My brothers too loved it and obviously it was a strict ‘no-no’ for us to dip our hands into the Bharani as it would spoil the Uppumanga  Amma treasured.  Our hands would be dirty or wet and she did not want the mangos to be infected with fungus.  She had a special തവി(Thavi), a large ladle made of  half shell of a coconut with a long handle made from coconut wood, to take out the mangoes.

Amma cooked every morning prior to leaving to the school where she taught and in the evening on return.  The rice for the dinner was cooked in the evening and I observed that she always cooked an extra cup of rice.  On inquiry, she said it is for the guests who might come calling on in the evening.  In those days the last trip of the bus to Kottayam town was at 7 PM and all relatives who came over had to spend the night at our home.  Our home was about 20 km from our ancestral village as our father moved there next to Amma’s school so that she could spend more time at home and with us children.

Any rice left over after dinner was placed in an earthen pot soaked in water and left to ferment overnight at room temperature.  We did not have a fridge by then and hence this was the only way to store the leftover rice.  Next morning it was served as Pazhankanji. It really tasted a lot better when one had it using a spoon made out of a Jack-Fruit leaf as shown in the image above.  In case poor and hungry people came calling, they would be served this.   If any of it was still left, it was put in the feed for the cows we reared.

As per Ayurveda and common popular belief,  consuming Pazhankanji has the  following advantages:-

  • Rich in B6 and B12 Vitamins.
  • Easy to digest and hence the body feels less tired and one feels fresh throughout the day.
  • Beneficial bacteria get produced in abundance for the body.
  • Excessive heat retained in the body overnight is relieved .
  • Reduces constipation as this is very fibrous..
  • It is said to lower blood pressure and hypertension subsides appreciably.
  • This removes allergy induced problems and also skin-related ailments.
  • It removes all types of ulcers in the body.
  • It helps in maintaining youthful and radiant look.
  • Consuming this is believed to reduce craving for tea or coffee.

From where does the rice, known as കുത്തരി  (Kuththari), to make this divine Pazhankanji come from?

Rice from our paddy field after harvesting is stocked in പത്താഴം (Pathazham), a large wooden box.  About 50 kg of this raw harvested rice it is taken out and boiled in the evening in a large copper vessel  until the husk break open a little.  This is left overnight and next morning it is drained and sun dried on a തഴപ്പായ് (Thazhappay) – a mat of 12 feet by 30 feet made from the leaves of screw pine.  We children had to be sentries for the rice being dried in the sun to ensure that the brood of fowls we reared did not feast on the rice and also to shoo away the crows.  Another task was to turn the rice over using our hands and feet to ensure exposing of the entire rice to the sun to facilitate even drying.  In case one spotted a rain bearing cloud, one had to alert every member of the household to come out to pack up the rice and the mat.  In case they got wet, fungus infection was a sure shot thing in humid Kerala.  The only other task one was permitted during this sentry duty was to read a book.

After about two to three such rounds of sun drying was complete, the rice used to be packed in gunny bags and had to be transported to the rice mill for de-husking operation.  Our eldest brother was the mission commander and he used to hire a hand cart and we siblings used to load it up and push the cart to the mill with our eldest brother manning the controls of the hand cart in front.  At the rice mill, the semi-polished rice would emerge out through a chute, the outer husk through another and the edible Bran – തവിട് (Thavidu) through another.  We had to collect these in different gunny bags and load them up in the hand cart.  After paying up the mill owner was the return journey home.  The inedible husk was used as fuel to be burned with firewood to boil the next lot of raw rice and the bran found its way to the cows’ feed.

A part of the rice husk was burned and the residue was sieved and to the fine powder.  Salt, powdered pepper and cloves were added to this to form ഉമ്മിക്കരി (Umikkari). This was used as tooth powder by all of us.  I was least surprised by the advertisements of modern toothpaste manufacturers claiming that they have all the ingredients that made up our Ummikkari in their product.

In the earlier days, when I was a little child, prior to the establishment of the rice mill, Amma would hire women folk to do the de-husking operation in an ഉരൽ (Ural).  Ural is a stone cylinder about two feet tall and two feet in diameter.  On the top surface, a hole, six inch in diameter and depth is chiseled out to hold rice.  There is a five feet tall baton made of hardwood, with a metallic cover at the base, which is lifted up and pounded on the material inside the hole.  Perfecting the art of not spilling the contents while pounding is developed over time – to start with for any learner, the speed of pounding is a bit slow, but with practice, the speed really picks up.  In my younger days I have seen two ladies doing this in tandem.  Real precision timing and coordination is required for each pounding, else it could spell disaster.

With the advent of modern household appliances like grinders, fridges. mixies, etc and availability of pre-prepared, sorted  and cleaned rice and various other products have surely reduced the workload, but the taste of the natural rice still lingers on my taste buds.  The fridges for sure have made Pazhankanji a history, even in our home.

All Creatures Great and Small

All things bright and beautiful,
All creatures great and small,
All things wise and wonderful:
The Lord God made them all.               Cecil F. Alexander

This was a hymn we sang at the morning assembly at our school.  During my vacation in Kerala in April 2017, these lines came back to my mind as I took a stroll through the farmland behind our home.  Three small but great creatures caught my attention.  They are not great because the Lord God made them all, but because they were my companions as I grew up as a child.

The very first is the Antlion.  It  is surely neither an ant nor a lion, else a little three year old kid could not have played with them.  The Antlion is called so because it feeds on ants and hence is like a ‘lion’ for the ants. In Malayalam it is called കുഴിയാന – Kuzhiyana – meaning an elephant in a pit.  It is surely not an elephant, but its hump looks like that of an elephant and it did live in a conical pit.  In North America, Antlions are called ‘doodlebugs’, because of the doodles they leave on the sand while looking for a suitable spot to dig its pit.  It is in fact the larval form of a dragonfly.

A fully developed Antlion is about a centimeter long, with a larval  life cycle similar to that of a caterpillar.  At the end of the larva stage, it spins a cocoon and after a few days an adult a dragonfly emerges.

Antlions like to set their pits in places where it is dry and where the soil particles are loose and small. They dig a circular, funnel-shaped pit and hide at the bottom of it. When an unsuspecting ant  falls into the pit, the Antlion grabs it with its jaws. The prey cannot escape the pit because the wall is crumbly.  As the prey tries to climb up, the grainy wall crumbles down.

Antlion with its bean-shaped body and ant like head appear to  move rearwards.  As a child, I used to locate Antlions’  pits and blow the sand away with my mouth.  As the sand blew away, exposing the Antlion, it would further dig deep down to escape until I caught it.  The Antlions caught would be stored in an empty matchbox.  After a few of these creatures were caught, I used to line them up like elephants paraded during Thrissur Pooram.  The Thrissur Pooram is held in the city of Thrissur in central Kerala (India) and is a cultural highlight that is unique in its pageantry, magnitude and participation. 30  elephants are paraded on this occasion, attired  with the traditional Nettipattam (golden headdress), decorative bells and ornaments, decorated umbrellas, palm leaves and peacock feathers, and beautifully-crafted kolam (paintings).

The Antlions grow into dragonflies and would flutter around in search of insects, their staple food.  As a kid, I chased and caught a few of them and tied a small thread to their tails so as to control them and make them take short flights.  Then I would prompt the dragonfly to pick up small pebbles and increased the size of the stones until the dragonfly could lift no more.  This sadistic game ended with the death of the dragonfly, when it severed its head from its torso.

The next creature is the dangerous  നീർ – Neer – The Red Weaver Ants .  They are found in the tropical forests of Africa, Australia and the Solomon Islands. In India I have found them only in Kerala.  All animals, insects, birds and humans are scared of them because of the painful bite they inflict.  They are very aggressive territorial ants and tend to be very aggressive and responsive to disturbance.  They have a vice like grip and tremendous strength while inflicting a painful slicing bite.  With the bite they spray formic acid into the resulting wounds.

They are seen in almost all fruit trees in our farmland, mainly the  mango and  jackfruit trees.  They are natural insect killers as they feast on the fruit flies that hover around these trees.  It takes a few minutes for a fruit fly to find a suitable spot on the mango and inject her eggs under the skin of the fruit and make the fruit rot.  The weaver ants on these trees chase them away or capture them. When other insects, squirrels or birds detect the scent of weaver ants, they prefer to stay away.

The only catch is that when one needs to climb these trees to get the fruits down.  Then one has to apply a strong insect repellent – usually kerosene – and carry a bag full of ash.  As one climbs up the tree, ash is spread all around to keep these weaver ants at bay.

These weaver ants are famous for the elaborate treetop nests they build. They are champions of cooperation when it comes to building a nest.   They build nests by stitching five to ten leaves together using larval silk.  They first find a suitable location on a treetop and then bend down the leaves and place them in a tent like shape.  Holding down such leaves demand the force of a thousand ants, each drawing down with all his might and the others fasten the joints to build a spacious nest that protects their colony from impending danger of predators.

Using precise coordination, the weaver ants create very strong ant chains by linking legs to pull and bend leaves into desired tent like positions. Then they  glue them with silk.  The silk comes from their own larvae.  The adults carry larvae in their jaws and squeeze them gently so that the larvae secrete a drop of silk on one end of the leaf edges. The ants then carry the larvae along the entire length of the leaf edges, squeezing as they go, using the larvae like living bottles of glue, until the edges of the leaves are stuck together from end to end.

Weaver ants live in a highly organized, co-operative society, where every individual has a role to play in the survival of the entire colony. Their jobs are based on their physique and they execute the tasks with utmost sincerity and discipline. Those in charge of food bring anything edible back to their colony to feed other ants.  They also have a workers army who construct the nests and repair them and very aggressively protect the nests filled with ants and their eggs.

As a child, I used to stand next to the mango tree and observe these ants at work.  I used to talk to them, reporting what all happened at home.  This time I did watch them curiously, but had nothing to talk to them.

Photographs Courtesy Sherrin Koduvath 

A Befitting War Memorial and Museum

Having visited many cenotaphs and monuments across Canada and also the War Museum at Ottawa in memory of Canadians who served around the world in the cause of peace and freedom, I was always baffled that my motherland India has only a handful of them.  Surely the Indians have a colourful military history, spanning over many centuries, covering the entire globe.  The Indian soldiers made up the majority numbers in World War I & II, but there is only the India Gate built in memory of these valiant soldiers who did the ultimate sacrifice in World War I and their names are etched on it.  There is no museum anywhere in India to celebrate the sacrifices of the soldiers and to document the military history of the land.

On 22 March 2017, I had the opportunity to visit the newly opened Punjab State War Heroes’ Memorial & Museum during my trip to the holy city of Amritsar.  It surely stands out as the very first such monument of India.  It celebrates the history of Punjab, the ten Gurus, the Sikh Kingdom, Indians in both World Wars and all the post independent military actions.

The museum is at it nascent stage, but surely takes the visitor through the ages.  The area has been aesthetically done up with its surroundings and the imposing high ‘Sword’ – it could well be the tallest such structure in the world, standing high at about 45 meters.  I was surely impressed by a line from the smart young tour guides who all said a catch line “The sword is weapon with its sharp edge facing towards Pakistan, depicting not war, but peace and prosperity”.  This spirit is what is being celebrated here – “Not war, but peace and prosperity.”

The guns, tanks, fighter aircraft, a model of India’s first aircraft carrier INS Vikrant and also two captured Pakistani tanks as war trophies; all add colour and decor to the seven acre monument.  The base of the sword with its four roaring lions and the various military equipment are all surely a delight for the ‘selfie’ mavericks.

The first gallery in the museum housed the history of the ten Guru of Sikhism and their contribution in spreading the message of love and peace.  The history of the Holy Book ‘Guru Granth Sahib’ from the first compilation of the Adi Granth to its current compiled version and the contributors of the Holy Book is very well brought out here.  It was surely a great learning for me.

The second hall depicted the military history of Punjab, mainly from the time of Maharaja Ranjith Singh.  The other galleries were dedicated to the wars fought by India post independence.  The display and layout is very impressive, especially the use of modern technology projection system to bring to life the real-near war scenario of the time depicted.  Obviously, being at a nascent stage with a hurried inauguration has left a few gaps and I am sure that the team working on the museum will do the needful to bring better authenticity to the displays.  Surely, in its present state it can stand in line with the many war museums I have visited in North America and Europe.  It not only depicts the military history of Punjab, but is also ensures that it celebrates the Indian military history and bestows it the due place and recognition.  In future, I am sure that it will emerge as a centre for research and excellence in India and for the entire world.

The 7D Theatre running a show with the latest technology to tingle patriotism through all our senses, depicting India’s military history is the icing on the cake.  Having experienced a similar show at the Niagara, depicting the history of the Falls, I am sure this too will stun any visitor.  There is a bit of fine tuning required to exploit the 7D system to its hilt.

What needs to be done now?  Here are certain suggestions:-

The display rooms, especially post independent wars, could well be covered with camouflage nets to give the visitor a war ambience.  The walkways may be redesigned to depict communication trenches as seen in the Runn of Kutch, Rajasthan deserts, plains of Punjab, hills of J&K, the Eastern states, high altitudes and Siachen Glacier.  The base can be of glass and below it can be the soil of the area being depicted.  Playing of war music and songs of the relevant times will surely add to the ambience.

A gallery may be added to depict the life of our soldiers in Siachen Glacier and the high altitudes.

The museum could also arrange with the formations in Punjab to hold static equipment displays as well as a few manoeuvres, especially on weekends and holidays when the footfall would be at its peak.  The area behind the museum can be well employed for this, especially for the tracked vehicles.  This will surely go a long way in civil-military liaison and bringing our armed forces closer to the people.

Creation of an amphitheatre, keeping in mind the future plans for a light & sound show will reap rich dividends.  The theatre could also stage re-enactments and plays of various aspects being displayed in the galleries.  The same is being done in many locations in North America employing volunteer and professional artists with pyro-techniques during high footfall times and days.  The schools and colleges can be encouraged to stage their shows too.  The professional and amateur artists in and around the museum area can be contracted to come out with their versions.  This will surely boost their cultural talents and at the same time provide them with employment.

There is a need to collect and display war/ military artefacts and displaying them at appropriate places.  This may include medals, uniforms, Field Service Marching Order, First Field Dressings, shell dressings, boxes and bags, enamel plates and mugs, water bottles, flasks, crockery and cutlery – the list is endless.  It would also be worthwhile to collect war/ field literature in terms of letters, journals, diaries, note books etc used by the soldiers.  For the collection of these artefacts, there got to be a media campaign through newspapers, radio and TV.  It would be worthwhile to rope in the students too by the Education department sending circulars through schools and colleges.  Once collected, these priceless artefacts must be restored, preserved, catalogued and displayed.  This will surely be of immense help to future research scholars and will go a long way in preserving our military heritage.

Even though at its nascent stage, the landscaping of the area needs to be taken up on a war footing.  The horticulture department needs to step in with their expertise.  Water conservation with drip irrigation and such methods may be employed.  It would be prudent to create a nursery and a small green-house to ensure that the annual and seasonal plants would bloom in the area all through the year.  Surely a must for such a monument.

The sore point in many such Indian institutions is the sanitation and hygiene.  The washrooms need a thorough ‘working out.’  The janitorial staff got to clean it regularly on hourly basis the least and may be more frequently during rainy season and high footfall times.  Provision of clean and cold drinking water where the visitor is expected to spend at least one hour is mandatory.

With the dedication of the team behind the monument, one is sure that in the very near future this monument will be a world beater.  It will surely be a torchbearer for other states and the centre to follow.  This will stand out as a classical monument to remember the sacrifices made by the men and women who have served our great nation and the contributions of the daughters and sons of a great land Punjab.

 

March Break or ‘Breaking’ March

The schools in Ontario, Canada closed down for the March Break also known as Spring Break after Friday’s classes on March 10, 2017.  The schools will reopen only on March 20.  On Saturday/Sunday (March 11/12 night at 2 AM, the clocks are moved forward by a hour to cater for Daylight Saving Time (DST).

The Spring Breaks dates back to the 1930s when a New York swimming coach, looking for a warmer place to train his team moved them to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, in the 1930s. Spring Break was made popular in the 1960s with the release of the movie ‘Where the Boys Are’  about a group of college students enjoying their Spring Break at the very same location.

In Canada, Spring Break is one of the busiest travel weeks of the year, when cross-border traffic volume increase manifold with parents and children moving to the US, obviously a warmer area, to spend the holydays.  The airports are jam-packed that weekend.  Many Canadians also use the break to escape the bitter winter cold for warmer climates like Hawaii and Mexico, leaving resorts and hotels fully booked.

Despite having the warmest February in Toronto’s history last month, it appears that March is more than making up for the reduced snowfall.  On Monday March 13, with the snowstorm, about a foot of snow is expected to blanket the area according to Environment Canada.  The storm is also expected to bring gusty winds resulting in potentially dangerous driving conditions and blowing snow. The above image shows our home at about 2 PM on 13 March.

The city has issued an extreme cold weather warning and the crews are out with their salters and snow plows to clear the snow to keep the traffic going.  Surely, it is bit of a disappointment for the children as most outdoor activities, other than snow-skiing ,is likely to be closed.  Parents are surely worried, especially those who intended to be on the roads, driving their children to various Canadian Spring Break locations. 

With the Spring Break comes the DST.  It adds one hour to standard time with the purpose of making better use of daylight and conserving energy.  Even though the Sun will rise and set as before, the clocks will show the time one hour later than the day before.  The first to use DST was Thunder Bay in Ontario, Canada In July, 1908.  Other cities and provinces followed suit by introducing DST bylaws.

The first country to introduce DST was Germany during World War I on April 30, 1916, when clocks were turned ahead one hour.  This was to minimize the use of artificial lighting in order to conserve fuel.  UK followed it up and many other countries, including France also did the same. Many countries reverted back to standard time after World War I and World War II marked the return of  DST in  Europe.

In the US, ‘Fast Time’ as it was called then, was first introduced in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson to support the war effort during World War I. From 1945 to 1966 there were no uniform rules for DST in the US and it caused widespread confusion especially for trains, buses, and the broadcasting industry. As a result, the Uniform Time Act of 1966 was enacted which stipulated that DST would begin on the last Sunday of April and end on the last Sunday of October.

The US Congress extended DST to a period of ten months in 1974 hoping to save energy following the 1973 oil embargo. The trial period showed that DST saved the energy equivalent of 10,000 barrels of oil each day, but DST still proved to be controversial.  It was then reduced it to eight months in 1975 as many complained that the dark winter mornings endangered the lives of children going to school.

After the energy crisis, the DST schedule in the US was revised several times from 1987 to 2006. The current DST was introduced in 2007 beginning the second Sunday in March and ending on the first Sunday in November. DST is now in force in over 70 countries worldwide and affects over a billion people every year. The beginning and end dates vary from one country to another. In 1996, the European Union (EU) standardized an EU-wide DST schedule, beginning  last Sunday in March and ending  last Sunday in October.

It is believed that DST showed a decrease in road accidents by ensuring that the  roads are naturally lit during the peak traffic hours.  Studies also show that there is an increase in both heart attacks and road accidents on the days after clocks are set forward one hour in the spring.